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Research & Development

We carry out studies and independent research projects along with cooperating with national and international hospitals and universities. Through an interdisciplinary approach, we apply our STEM competencies (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics) intending to promote new products and services and at the same time safeguard the highest quality and safety standards for the distribution of musculoskeletal tissue.

Rappresentazione grafica dell'attività di ricerca e sviluppo


  • Custom Implants, planning and creation of custom-made tissues and endoprostheses with additive and subtractive technologies. The project (Operational Regional Programme – European Regional Development Fund 2014-2020) brought the creation of an innovative processing technique for tissues with an industrial robot installed inside the clean room.
  • BONES-BRMS, study regarding a structural chemical and physical analysis of osteochondral tissue via Raman spectroscopy paired with Brillouin spectroscopy to highlight the differences in composition and mechanical properties between healthy and pathologic bone tissue, afflicted by primary osteoarthrosis. 
  • TISS-KNEE, Gathering of biological sampling to create a structural and mechanical characterisation of ligamentous tissues and menisci of the knee joint.
  • Microspheres Project, experimenting new formula of engineered bone pastes with microcarrier at the controlled release of molecules with osteoinductive and/or antimicrobic action.
  • iGraft-C, a new formulation for bone paste added with an osteoinductive peptide
  • ProMet-ECMO, Comparative in vitro study of the mechanical properties of tendons harvested from cadaver donors who underwent Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO).
  • NervTransplant, A clinical study consisting in implanting portions of decellularised nerve in maxillofacial surgery. 
  • 3D-MALF II, surgical planning in pediatric patients afflicted by malformations, treated through the implantation of custom bone graft 3D printed with the aid of cut guides.


  • Supply of models derived from 3D printed CT scans. (information in the price list)
  • 3D bone models, applicable in the deceased bone reconstruction for training purposes of laboratory technicians involved in the processing of musculoskeletal tissue in the cleanroom
  • Projecting, prototyping, experimentation, production and commercialisation of bone derivates that require high precision processing via the use of an automated cutting system
  • Creation of 3D printed hemipelvis, used in the reconstruction of the body of deceased donors (optimisation of results and timings)
  • Use of the innovative robotised platform for the high precision processing of custom-made grafts for orthopaedics
  • Clinical experimentation of inter somatic lumbar fusion via cage made with cortical bone from a CNC Milling Machine



(1)    Vivarelli, L.; Govoni, M.; Attala, D.; Zoccali, C.; Biagini, R.; Dallari, D. Custom Massive Allograft in a Case of Pelvic Bone Tumour: Simulation of Processing with Computerised Numerical Control vs. Robotic Machining. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11 (10), 2781.

(2)    Zia, S.; Roda, B.; Zannini, C.; Alviano, F.; Bonsi, L.; Govoni, M.; Vivarelli, L.; Fazio, N.; Dallari, D.; Reschiglian, P.; Zattoni, A. Quality Control Platform for the Standardization of a Regenerative Medicine Product. Bioengineering 2022, 9 (4), 142.

(3)    Alunni Cardinali, M.; Di Michele, A.; Mattarelli, M.; Caponi, S.; Govoni, M.; Dallari, D.; Brogini, S.; Masia, F.; Borri, P.; Langbein, W.; Palombo, F.; Morresi, A.; Fioretto, D. Brillouin–Raman Microspectroscopy for the Morpho-Mechanical Imaging of Human Lamellar Bone. J. R. Soc. Interface 19 (187), 20210642.

(4)    Lovecchio, J.; Cortesi, M.; Zani, M.; Govoni, M.; Dallari, D.; Giordano, E. Fiber Thickness and Porosity Control in a Biopolymer Scaffold 3D Printed through a Converted Commercial FDM Device. Materials 2022, 15 (7), 2394.

(5)    Govoni, M.; Danesi, F. Do Pomegranate Hydrolyzable Tannins and Their Derived Metabolites Provide Relief in Osteoarthritis? Findings from a Scoping Review. Molecules 2022, 27 (3), 1033.

(6)    Cimatti P, Andreoli I, Busacca M, Govoni M, Vivarelli L, Del Piccolo N, Maso A, Stagni C, Pignatti G. An Observational Prospective Clinical Study for the Evaluation of a Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffold in Hip Revision Surgery. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(21):6372.

(7)    Ruffilli, A., Barile, F., Fiore, M. et al. Allogenic bone grafts and postoperative surgical site infection: are positive intraoperative swab cultures predictive for a higher infectious risk?. Cell Tissue Bank (2022).

(8)    Alessandri, G.; Frizziero, L.; Santi, G.M.; Liverani, A.; Dallari, D.; Vivarelli, L.; Di Gennaro, G.L.; Antonioli, D.; Menozzi, G.C.; Depaoli, A.; Rocca, G.; Trisolino, G. Virtual Surgical Planning, 3D-Printing and Customized Bone Allograft for Acute Correction of Severe Genu Varum in Children. J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12, 2051.

(9)    Mooiweer Y, Stevens M, van den Akker-Scheek I; PAIR study group. Being active with a total hip or knee prosthesis: a systematic review into physical activity and sports recommendations and interventions to improve physical activity behavior. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 2022 Feb 28;19(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s11556-022-00285-1.

(10)    Mazzotta A, Pennello E, Stagni C, Del Piccolo N, Boffa A, Cenacchi A, Buzzi M, Filardo G, Dallari D. Umbilical Cord PRP vs. Autologous PRP for the Treatment of Hip Osteoarthritis. J Clin Med. 2022 Aug 2;11(15):4505. doi: 10.3390/jcm11154505.

(11)    Rani N, Perut F, Granchi D, Sante GD, Pennello E, Mazzotta A, Dallari D, Baldini N. Ultrasound-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma or cord blood platelet-rich plasma in nonunion: a randomized controlled trial. Regen Med. 2022 May;17(5):271-281. doi: 10.2217/rme-2021-0103.

(12)    Zagra L, Benazzo F, Dallari D, Falez F, Solarino G, D'Apolito R, Castelli CC. Current concepts in hip-spine relationships: making them practical for total hip arthroplasty. EFORT Open Rev. 2022 Jan 11;7(1):59-69. doi: 10.1530/EOR-21-0082.



(1)    Alunni Cardinali, M.; Morresi, A.; Fioretto, D.; Vivarelli, L.; Dallari, D.; Govoni, M. Brillouin and Raman Micro-Spectroscopy: A Tool for Micro-Mechanical and Structural Characterization of Cortical and Trabecular Bone Tissues. Mater. Basel Switz. 2021, 14 (22), 6869.

(2)    Roberti Di Sarsisa, T.; Fiore, M.; Coco, V.; Govoni, M.; Vivarelli, L.; Rani, N.; Del Piccolo, N.; Dallari, D. Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation in Osteochondritis Dissecans in the Knee Joint. Life Basel Switz. 2021, 11 (11), 1205.

(3)    Trisolino, G.; Stallone, S.; Castagnini, F.; Bordini, B.; Cosentino, M.; Lucchini, S.; Zarantonello, P.; Ferrari, D.; Dallari, D.; Traina, F. Cementless Ceramic-on-Ceramic Total Hip Replacement in Children and Adolescents. Child. Basel Switz. 2021, 8 (10), 858.

(4)    Stagni, C.; Rocchi, M.; Mazzotta, A.; Del Piccolo, N.; Rani, N.; Govoni, M.; Vivarelli, L.; Veronesi, F.; Fini, M.; Dallari, D. Randomised, Double-Blind Comparison of a Fixed Co-Formulation of Intra-Articular Polynucleotides and Hyaluronic Acid versus Hyaluronic Acid Alone in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: Two-Year Follow-Up. BMC Musculoskelet. Disord. 2021, 22 (1), 773.

(5)        Salamanna, F.; Del Piccolo, N.; Sartori, M.; Giavaresi, G.; Martini, L.; Di Sante, G.; Stagni, C.; Dallari, D.; Fini, M. Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma on Bone Regeneration and Osseointegration of a Hydroxyapatite-Coated Titanium Implant. Coatings 2021, 11 (7), 840.

(6)    Marchiori, G.; Berni, M.; Cassiolas, G.; Vivarelli, L.; Lopomo, N. F.; Fini, M.; Dallari, D.; Govoni, M. Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation Cadaver Donors: What about Tissues Used as Allografts? Membranes 2021, 11 (7), 545.

(7)    Zagra, L.; D’Apolito, R.; Guindani, N.; Zatti, G.; Rivera, F.; Ravasi, F.; Mosconi, M.; Momoli, A.; Massè, A.; Franceschini, M.; D’Angelo, F.; Dallari, D.; Catani, F.; Casiraghi, A.; Bove, F.; Castelli, C. C. Do Standards of Care and Early Outcomes of Periprosthetic Fractures Change during the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Multicentre Study. J. Orthop. Traumatol. Off. J. Ital. Soc. Orthop. Traumatol. 2021, 22 (1), 22.

(8)    Govoni, M.; Vivarelli, L.; Mazzotta, A.; Stagni, C.; Maso, A.; Dallari, D. Commercial Bone Grafts Claimed as an Alternative to Autografts: Current Trends for Clinical Applications in Orthopaedics. Materials 2021, 14 (12), 3290.

(9)    Mazzotta, A.; Stagni, C.; Rocchi, M.; Rani, N.; Del Piccolo, N.; Filardo, G.; Dallari, D. Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate/Platelet-Rich Fibrin Augmentation Accelerates Healing of Aseptic Upper Limb Nonunions. J. Orthop. Traumatol. 2021, 22 (1), 21.

(10)    Rocchi, M.; Stagni, C.; Govoni, M.; Mazzotta, A.; Vivarelli, L.; Orlandi Magli, A.; Perrone, M.; Benedetti, M. G.; Dallari, D. Comparison of a Fast Track Protocol and Standard Care after Hip Arthroplasty in the Reduction of the Length of Stay and the Early Weight-Bearing Resumption: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. Trials 2021, 22 (1), 348.

(11)    Aprato, A.; Guindani, N.; Massè, A.; Castelli, C. C.; Cipolla, A.; Antognazza, D.; Benazzo, F.; Bove, F.; Casiraghi, A.; Catani, F.; Dallari, D.; D’Apolito, R.; Franceschini, M.; Momoli, A.; Ravasi, F.; Rivera, F.; Zagra, L.; Zatti, G.; D’Angelo, F. Clinical Activities, Contaminations of Surgeons and Cooperation with Health Authorities in 14 Orthopedic Departments in North Italy during the Most Acute Phase of Covid-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health 2021, 18 (10), 5340.

(12)    Dallari, D.; Zagra, L.; Cimatti, P.; Guindani, N.; D’Apolito, R.; Bove, F.; Casiraghi, A.; Catani, F.; D’Angelo, F.; Franceschini, M.; Massè, A.; Momoli, A.; Mosconi, M.; Ravasi, F.; Rivera, F.; Zatti, G.; Castelli, C. C. Early Mortality in Hip Fracture Patients Admitted during First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Northern Italy: A Multicentre Study. J. Orthop. Traumatol. 2021, 22 (1), 15.

(13)    Govoni, M.; Muscari, C.; Bonafè, F.; Morselli, P. G.; Cortesi, M.; Dallari, D.; Giordano, E. A Brief Very-Low Oxygen Tension Regimen Is Sufficient for the Early Chondrogenic Commitment of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Adv. Med. Sci. 2021, 66 (1), 98–104.


(1)    Rocchi, M.; Del Piccolo, N.; Mazzotta, A.; Giavaresi, G.; Fini, M.; Facchini, F.; Stagni, C.; Dallari, D. Core Decompression with Bone Chips Allograft in Combination with Fibrin Platelet-Rich Plasma and Concentrated Autologous Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Isolated from Bone Marrow: Results for the Treatment of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head after 2 Years Minimum Follow-Up. HIP Int. 2020, 30 (2_suppl), 3–12.

(2)    Cardinali, M. A.; Govoni, M.; Dallari, D.; Caponi, S.; Fioretto, D.; Morresi, A. Mechano-Chemistry of Human Femoral Diaphysis Revealed by Correlative Brillouin-Raman Microspectroscopy. Sci. Rep. 2020, 10 (1), 17341.

(3)    Trisolino, G.; Favero, M.; Dallari, D.; Tassinari, E.; Traina, F.; Otero, M.; Goldring, S. R.; Goldring, M. B.; Carubbi, C.; Ramonda, R.; Stilli, S.; Grigolo, B.; Olivotto, E. Response to “Letter to the Editor: Labral Calcification Plays a Key Role in Hip Pain and Symptoms in Femoroacetabular Impingement.” J. Orthop. Surg. 2020, 15 (1), 274.

(4)    Graziani, G.; Govoni, M.; Vivarelli, L.; Boi, M.; De Carolis, M.; Bianchi, M.; Sassoni, E.; Bignozzi, M. C.; Carnevale, G.; Marmi, F.; Maltarello, M. C.; Dallari, D. A Comprehensive Microstructural and Compositional Characterization of Allogenic and Xenogenic Bone: Application to Bone Grafts and Nanostructured Biomimetic Coatings. Coatings 2020, 10 (6), 522.

(5)    Govoni, M.; Lamparelli, E. P.; Ciardulli, M. C.; Santoro, A.; Oliviero, A.; Palazzo, I.; Reverchon, E.; Vivarelli, L.; Maso, A.; Storni, E.; Donati, M. E.; Ruspaggiari, G.; Maffulli, N.; Fini, M.; Della Porta, G.; Dallari, D. Demineralized Bone Matrix Paste Formulated with Biomimetic PLGA Microcarriers for the Vancomycin Hydrochloride Controlled Delivery: Release Profile, Citotoxicity and Efficacy against S. Aureus. Int. J. Pharm. 2020, 582, 119322.

(6)    Grassi, F. R.; Grassi, R.; Vivarelli, L.; Dallari, D.; Govoni, M.; Nardi, G. M.; Kalemaj, Z.; Ballini, A. Design Techniques to Optimize the Scaffold Performance: Freeze-Dried Bone Custom-Made Allografts for Maxillary Alveolar Horizontal Ridge Augmentation. Materials 2020, 13 (6), 1393.

(7)    Trisolino, G.; Favero, M.; Dallari, D.; Tassinari, E.; Traina, F.; Otero, M.; Goldring, S. R.; Goldring, M. B.; Carubbi, C.; Ramonda, R.; Stilli, S.; Grigolo, B.; Olivotto, E. Labral Calcification Plays a Key Role in Hip Pain and Symptoms in Femoroacetabular Impingement. J. Orthop. Surg. 2020, 15 (1), 86.

(8)    Desando, G.; Roseti, L.; Bartolotti, I.; Dallari, D.; Stagni, C.; Grigolo, B. Histopathological Signatures of the Femoral Head in Patients with Osteonecrosis and Potential Applications in a Multi-Targeted Approach: A Pilot Study. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10 (11), 3945.

(9)    Dallari, D.; Sabbioni, G.; Del Piccolo, N.; Carubbi, C.; Veronesi, F.; Torricelli, P.; Fini, M. Efficacy of Intra-Articular Polynucleotides Associated With Hyaluronic Acid Versus Hyaluronic Acid Alone in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial. Clin. J. Sport Med. Off. J. Can. Acad. Sport Med. 2020, 30 (1), 1–7.

2019 and previous years

(1)    Cardinali, M. A.; Dallari, D.; Govoni, M.; Stagni, C.; Marmi, F.; Tschon, M.; Brogini, S.; Fioretto, D.; Morresi, A. Brillouin Micro-Spectroscopy of Subchondral, Trabecular Bone and Articular Cartilage of the Human Femoral Head. Biomed. Opt. Express 2019, 10 (5), 2606–2611.

(2)    Battistelli, M.; Favero, M.; Burini, D.; Trisolino, G.; Dallari, D.; Franceschi, L. D.; Goldring, S. R.; Goldring, M. B.; Belluzzi, E.; Filardo, G.; Grigolo, B.; Falcieri, E.; Olivotto, E. Morphological and Ultrastructural Analysis of Normal, Injured and Osteoarthritic Human Knee Menisci. Eur. J. Histochem. 2019, 63 (1).

(3)    Nicoletti, A.; Torricelli, P.; Bigi, A.; Fornasari, P.; Fini, M.; Moroni, L. Incorporation of Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite and Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) in Demineralized Bone Matrix Enhances Osteoblast and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Activity. Biointerphases 2015, 10 (4), 041001.

(4)    Dallari, D.; Savarino, L.; Albisinni, U.; Fornasari, P.; Ferruzzi, A.; Baldini, N.; Giannini, S. A Prospective, Randomised, Controlled Trial Using a Mg-Hydroxyapatite - Demineralized Bone Matrix Nanocomposite in Tibial Osteotomy. Biomaterials 2012, 33 (1), 72–79.

(5)    Cenni, E.; Perut, F.; Ciapetti, G.; Savarino, L.; Dallari, D.; Cenacchi, A.; Stagni, C.; Giunti, A.; Fornasari, P. M.; Baldini, N. In Vitro Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Bone Allografts Combined with Platelet Rich Plasma and Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells for Tissue Engineering. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 2009, 20 (1), 45–50.

(6)    Savarino, L.; Cenni, E.; Tarabusi, C.; Dallari, D.; Stagni, C.; Cenacchi, A.; Fornasari, P. M.; Giunti, A.; Baldini, N. Evaluation of bone healing enhancement by lyophilized bone grafts supplemented with platelet gel: A standardized methodology in patients with tibial osteotomy for genu varus. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 2006, 76B (2), 364–372.

(7)    Dallari, D.; Fini, M.; Stagni, C.; Torricelli, P.; Aldini, N. N.; Giavaresi, G.; Cenni, E.; Baldini, N.; Cenacchi, A.; Bassi, A.; Giardino, R.; Fornasari, P. M.; Giunti, A. In Vivo Study on the Healing of Bone Defects Treated with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Freeze-Dried Bone Allografts, Alone and in Combination. J. Orthop. Res. 2006, 24 (5), 877–888.

(8)    Maso, A.; Andollina, A.; Bassi, A.; Bertoni, G.; Modelli, L.; Quinto, C.; Vaccari, M.; Fornasari, P. M. Bacterial Contamination of Musculoskeletal Allografts. Chir. Organi Mov. 2003, 88 (4), 345–350. PubMed ID: 15259549

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